My first suggestion, would be to check out some of the posts I've made in the past regarding synth programming. I have an ongoing series of articles called Roll Your Own Sounds where I take you through the process of how to program certain sounds. These might make a bit more sense to you now, and will allow you to see the concepts and features we've discussed applied practically. They'll also help introduce you to some new features such as OSCILLATOR SYNC and UNISON.
Here's an article I wrote on using the free TAL Bassline synth to make a kick drum.
Here's an article introducing the concept of RING MODULATION.
This post discusses use for NOISE in your sounds.
Here's one about using PITCH ENVELOPES to add a hard attack to bass sounds.
Here's something a bit more advanced: simulating old school video game music in Native Instruments Massive.
Also on the more advanced end of the spectrum is this article about a type of filter we haven't discussed here called a COMB FILTER.
What about resources outside of this blog? Check out the Synth Secrets series by Sound on Sound Magazine. Simon Cann offers a free version of his How to Make a Noise guide to synthesis, as well as a commercial version with additional content. Finally, check out Howard Scarr's excellent Programming Analogue Synths guide on Access's site in the manual downloads section.